The author states that Barbary pirates represented an existential threat to a struggling young U. According to him, Somali pirates have been said as the product of anarchy, many times.
Contemporary Maritime Piracy : International Law, Strategy, and Diplomacy at Sea
The article presents the authors' comments on putting armed guards on ships. The authors state that while the U. According to them, armed guards are unlikely to be a panacea which would permit the current naval presence to be reduced significantly. Against the Current? The American call for commercial shippers to rely upon private security companies PSCs to protect their vessels from Somali pirates presents several challenges to sea users.
Though this call for responsibilization inherently reveals state limitations, not all commercial shippers embrace it because it upsets traditional conceptions regarding order at sea. Also, the call's American origins suggest that the United States Navy may not work to ensure freedom of navigation in the last resort despite longstanding practice and the expectations of sea users. This, in turn, underscores the lack of structure in relations amongst states, shippers, and PSCs, which could have detrimental consequences regarding the management of violence at sea.
The United States Navy may cease working to ensure freedom of navigation in the last resort despite longstanding practice and the expectations. While greater utilization of PSCs might seem to be an effective alternative and European states might add substance to the American call, perhaps through the Montreux Document, European activism is likely to be tempered by the different approaches towards private security that vary from country to country. PSC activism may affect the ability of navies to perform roles beyond the protection of commercial shipping.
Combattre la piraterie entretien avec Jack Lang The author reflects on the possibility of terrorists and pirates joining forces on the high seas. He points out that although the two groups have different missions, both traffic and smuggle arms, people, drugs and money. An example is when Somali pirates collaborated with a Somali al Qaida affiliate in smuggling weapons and Islamist fighters who were fleeing from Afghanistan into Somalia.
He claims that such possibility cannot be ignored especially in the Strait of Hormuz where tankers have no alternative route and where ransoms are the highest paid. The article uses history and Clausewitzian theory to estimate the nature of the threat and the likely efficacy of a land campaign. Even successful operations would entail costs exceeding the value of the political stakes.
For this reason alone, going ashore is inadvisable.taivermlatbank.tk
Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships | SpringerLink
The article also spotlights the geopolitical implications of counterpiracy, forecasting that an overbearing or botched campaign would damage the US efforts to marshal a maritime coalition in the Indian Ocean region. This further militates against hasty action. Collectively, these vessels operated effectively alongside the ships of several other navies, especially those of the U. Navy, that together form the various international flotillas confronting Somali pirates. On the negative side, the effective handling of Somali pirates has been an ephemeral and problematic task.
Despite the international naval presence, the incidence of Somali piracy has increased.
The article focuses on the occurrence of pirates in the coast of East Africa in the 20th century. It explains the emergence of pirates in Africa's east coast as a direct consequence to the collapse of Major General Mohammed Siad Barre's government and the Somali Civil War in It cites the increase of several pirate ships and crews in Do Somali Pirates have Legitimate Grievances? The article focuses on the Somali pirates.
It says that the pirates claimed of reacting to the 18 years of fatal toxic waste disposal and illegal, unregulated fishing in Somali waters. It tells that others consider themselves as volunteer coastguards. It mentions that Somalia's Deputy Prime Minister Abdulrahman Adan Ibrahim Ibbi states that if the international community wants to limit piracy, the community must help Somalia keep illegal foreign fishing and toxic wastes dumping away. Who is Keeping the Sea Safe? The coast of East Africa, the Gulf of Aden and nearby waters of the Indian Ocean stand as the most pirate-ridden area of the seas at this time and naval forces from many nations have descended upon the region to ensure the safe passage of commercial vessels; yet piracy for ransom continues.
However, apprehending pirates is only effective if they can also be brought to a court capable of adjudicating their guilt. Increasingly, the captured suspects are being disarmed and released, lacking a reliable nearby littoral state to prosecute them. In this region, with few viable states either willing or capable of holding piracy trials, apprehending pirates meets only part of the challenge of abating the practise.
What is needed is a court system capable of adjudicating these cases; yet a thicket of both law and custom limits the ability of seagoing states to adequately arrest and hand over to reliable prosecution high seas pirates. This article addresses the problems inherent in abating piracy by these means off the coast of East Africa. IX, no. Historical record shows the dominance of Hoboyo-Haradhere cartel, which is operated by the group led by Mohammed Abdi Jassan Afwyne, in the piracy scene in Somalia. The underlying causal factors of maritime piracy off the HoA are the lack of a viable sovereign entity, poverty, humanitarian crisis, and availability of light weapons in East Africa.
International response to piracy off the HoA include the U.
- A Needle in the Right Hand of God: The Norman Conquest of 1066 and the Making and Meaning of the Bayeux Tapestry.
- Journal Articles (2017).
- The Implications of Immanence: Toward a New Concept of Life (Perspectives in Continental Philosophy).
Pieces of Eight : An Appraisal of U. It then, after an overview of the nature of maritime piracy in this region, highlights the counterpiracy methods employed by the United States and assesses their prospects for success or failure. It concludes by proposing a comprehensive and sustainable counterpiracy strategy that targets both the root causes of piracy and the symptoms that emerge from lawlessness on land.
The article discusses the castigation of pirates by naval forces which pose a global security threat on international waters.
It states that pirates operate in waters of large coastal areas with high levels of commercial shipping and weak regional or collective security. It also offers several specific air power missions in dealing with modern piracy including the overlying need for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance ISR , immediate tactical response and a loiter capability. These three essays, offering a range of contexts for the new piracy, are shortened versions of three of the papers presented.
A fourth, on Somali security issues more generally, appears elsewhere in this issue.
FAVORIT BOOK Contemporary Maritime Piracy: International Law, Strategy, and Diplomacy at Sea
A deteriorating humanitarian situation in drought-plagued Somalia, precipitated by the October US suspension of food aid over fears that aid workers were diverting it to terrorists, and the prospect of unmanageable numbers of Somali refugees fleeing over comparatively stable Kenya's border, have increased pressure on Washington to revise US policy.
These factors could lead to a new approach, consonant with the evolving emphasis on nuanced counter-insurgency, involving the application of soft power, such as development aid, with less scrutiny on governance. Robust, high-profile international diplomatic or military initiatives in Somalia, however, are unlikely. Near-term developments in Somalia will probably follow the depressingly familiar pattern whereby the Transitional Federal Government and Islamist militias maintain an uneasy military stalemate, with neither building the political infrastructure and good will required to tip the balance decisively.
The article discusses the international community responses to Somali pirates' activities. Antipiracy efforts of the international community have taken on a multifaceted approach, led by the U. The support given by the administration of U. President George W. Bush to the policy and plan is cited.
The recent resurgence of high seas piracy reflects a variety of socio-economic factors in the regions of highest occurrence. While the underlying causes of piracy require long-term global investment in governance and infrastructure, the maritime nations of the world share a common responsibility to provide security in the maritime domain as outlined in the United Nations Conventions on the Law of the Sea UNCLOS.
The unique challenges of countering 21st century pirates can be overcome through enhanced cooperation between security forces and the maritime shipping community and the application of 21st century information sharing technology. The article offers information on the security crisis in the Horn of Africa HOA and the measures undertaken to address the issue. Problems related to national security are mentioned including piracy and terrorism which has placed the sea lines of communication SLOC at a very dangerous condition. Fifth Fleet.
This article objectively examines contemporary maritime security issues and highlights the developing international malaise. It argues that while conventional threats to maritime security remain low, relatively constant and localized, irregular, non-conventional actors are increasingly threatening global maritime security. This demands the promotion of a vigorous, coherent and international approach through the adaptation of established counter-insurgency COIN doctrine. The anti-pirate discourse in ancient and early modern history is explored where piracy was one of the main threats coming from the private use of force.
To combat present-day marauders, governments should look to the tactics used to defeat piracy in the past : a more active defense at sea and the pursuit of a political solution onshore. These include direct threats to ships, shipping and maritime personnel as well as threats from the way in which the Black Sea is used for illegal activities by criminals and terrorists. This paper argues that despite the acceptance by NATO that regional maritime security operation performed by littoral states will provide a safe and secure maritime environment in the Black Sea, these serious maritime threats cannot be dealt with effectively by the littoral states.
In the late 14th and early 15th centuries massive defensive attacks by Korea against wokou bases on Tsushima destroyed hundreds of pirate ships and freed large numbers of Korean captives. The largest of these assaults, known in Japan as the Oei Invasion, landed 17, Korean troops on Tsushima, forcing the wokou to enter into peace negotiations. The Koreans were more effective than the Chinese at resisting Japanese wokou.
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