The role of the operator in a system can be defined in terms of whether a human or a machine makes the decisions i. The role of the operator in the decision-making process can be placed into four categories:. The acceptable level of automation varies from site to site.
In some locations, the long-term system goal is to be fully automated while, at other locations, the goal is for the operator to continue to be a critical element in the operation of the system. Each philosophy has significant implications with regard to the overall design of the TMC, the workstations and the user interface. A continuum of operator roles exists that defines how much automation is needed to accomplish a function.
At one end of the continuum, a function is allocated solely to the human, and at the other end, solely to the machine. In between, performance of the function is shared by human and machine components. As shown in Figure , the continuum can be divided into four major regions; each region defines a generic operator role in relation to automation.
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Because it is a continuum, how much automation occurs varies within each region. How much automation is acceptable in a TMC varies from center to center, depending upon the experience of the operators, the operational goals and philosophy of the agency, and the sophistication of the system.
In many locations, routine functions in the TMC can be automated. For example, different TMCs use different methods for generating messages for display on changeable message signs, including the following:. Automation systems should be designed to help and support the operators. Operators should be fully aware of what information the system software has, what the automated systems is doing, why it is doing it, and what it is going to do next. At a minimum, the operator should be able to switch off the automated system to prevent future problems or to correct improper decisions.
If automated systems are to be used, the level of automation should be gradually increased throughout implementation. Initially, an operator should be present in the control room to review and approve all automated system actions. A detailed log of automation failures should be kept. As failures are eliminated, the role of the operator in the decision-making process can be reduced. In general, system designers need to be concerned with four types of communications systems when designing a freeway management system:. By definition, an LAN is any telecommunications system that serves a limited geographic area typically a single building or campus.
The term "network" refers to the fact that multiple users are interconnected. The simplest type of LAN permits the exchange of information between computers and computer-like devices such as word processors, operator workstations, database managers, etc. More complex forms of LANs are required to support the transmission of video and audio information besides data.
While the complexity of the LAN varies depending on the type of data being transmitted, every LAN has the following basic components:. The capacity of the supporting processors can vary from that of a personal computer to that of a microcomputer computer. In some systems, the LAN is also used to support video and voice transmissions via connections to television equipment and the telephone system. In larger LANs, a special processor, known as the network control station, is often used to monitor the communications traffic on the LAN continuously, and to accumulate statistics on workstation usage, transmission quality, and network configuration.
When planning a LAN system, the first consideration should be the selection of the type of system or topology that is most appropriate for the application requirements. Generally, three types of topology i.
Figure illustrates each of these topologies. Advantages and disadvantages of each topology are summarized in Table Connections between LAN nodes can be established over twisted-pair cable, thin coaxial cable, standard coaxial cable, or optical fiber. Each of these alternatives has increasing capacities. Twisted-pair telephone cable is smaller and cheaper than other communications media, but is subject to electrical and radio interference. Coaxial can carry higher frequencies and data rates than twisted-pair but is more difficult to manipulate physically. Optical fiber is popular because of its small cable diameter, protection against electromagnetic or radio interference, low attenuation, and large bandwidth, but is generally more expensive to install than the other media.
Factors that influence the selection and implementation of communications media used in the LAN include the following:. The ability to diagnose and predict its own failure is an important factor in designing an LAN. Simple layouts and well-established procedures should facilitate quick repair. In addition, system planners should anticipate expansion needs in the design of the system.
The internal design of the building should incorporate adequate routing ducts and conduits to hold all future growth needs. In addition, access rooms should be provided to ease the job of adding and maintaining an LAN. The types of voice communication systems needed within a TMC depend primarily upon the functions to be performed by the system, existing communications systems, local availability, and agency preference. Voice communications are commonly used in TMCs for the following purposes:.
Common types of voice communications systems included in the TMCs include intercom, direct line telephone connects, switching telephone systems, radio, and cellular telephones. Software applications — residing on servers, workstations, and field device processors — provide the functionality including the user interface for a freeway management system. Software application architectures have evolved over the years, progressing from mainframe host based character cell terminal applications to some form of networked PC computing to some form of client server based application architecture.
Throughout this evolution, many terms were invented to describe these architectures, often with multiple or confusing meanings. For the purpose of this section, the definitions are provided in Table This approach has both advantages and disadvantages:. Security surrounding TMCs largely depends on the nature of the center and its objectives.steriduchou.tk
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Because of the vast differences in the purposes and capabilities of these centers, the appropriate levels of security to protect them vary widely, as do the perceptions of security risk. Many original freeway management TMCs around the country were developed strictly as a traffic control measure and, as such, their operators did not see any particular threats to the facility. The Handbook of Digital Imaging is organized thematically in to three volumes for enhanced usability:. The Handbook will primarily target practitioners in the high-tech imaging, image processing and display industries including: photography, cinematography, mobile imaging and display, medical imaging and display, printing, copying and scanning, telecommunications, forensic science, remote sensing and surveillance.
A secondary audience will be academics at universities and research institutions worldwide engaged in research in the areas of image processing, image understanding, computational intelligence in imaging, colour science and technology, image analysis, machine vision and visualization. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.
If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Skip to Main Content. Handbook of Digital Imaging. However, most of these AR systems are designed for closed applications with particular markers, limited number of users and restricted digital contents. Hence, they are inappropriate for public environment with diverse digital contents. In this article we first review a well-known 2D bar code, the QR Code, and then survey a number of marker- or tag-based AR technologies.
We then present two applications, including a product demonstration system and a mobile phone application of the OpenID service, by combining these two techniques.
For the product demonstration system, a QR Code is pasted on the package of a product and then the content inside the package is displayed on the QR Code in a 3D format. This system allows the customer to visualize the product via a more direct and interactive way. With this system, users can quickly and easily share their information on social networks.
Meanwhile, the information can also be displayed in an AR form on the phones of the users. These two systems demonstrate the success of using QR Code as the AR marker to a particular application and we believe it can bring more convenient to our life in the future. This chapter describes the evolution of a feature-based tracking system developed by metaio.
Freeway Management and Operations Handbook
One of the reasons that started the development of the system was the first tracking contest at the International Symposium of Mixed and Augmented Reality ISMAR in , which was designed to fairly evaluate different tracking systems. We present the toolchain we conceived to solve common problems like referencing to another coordinate system or creating a map of the environment from photos; we also describe the principles of our tracking method which, in contrast to the methods of all other contestants, was robust enough to use exactly the same parameters for all scenarios of the tracking contest held within the German research project AVILUS1 but at the same time was the most accurate.
The ultimate goal of development is its integration into an end consumer product. Exploring and surveying the world has been an important goal of humankind for thousands of years. Entering the twenty-first century, the Earth has almost been fully digitally mapped. Widespread deployment of GIS Geographic Information Systems technology and a tremendous increase of both satellite and street-level mapping over the last decade enables the public to view large portions of the world using computer applications such as Bing Maps.
Bringing virtual, web based content to mobile users as a preliminary stage for the Internet of things is becoming a reality. With the abundance of mobile applications available today, a standard, multipurpose mobile AR browser will allow the mobile user to access augmented information and functionality far more efficiently than thousands of specialized applications used one at a time. The authors of this article therefore believe that widespread adoption of mobile AR will take place if and only if users can access multiple functionalities and a wide range of content within a single application: an AR browser that allows the user to explore information in the same fashion that an internet browser already offers.
In recent research in nano and micro world, the Atomic Force Microscope AFM  plays more and more important role because of high resolution image  and vacuum free working environment. With the help of AFM, it makes people more convenience to get high quality live cell or fixed cell image . The vacuum free working environment makes AFM much more flexible in various working conditions both in air and liquid.
Psychology is a field in which Virtual Reality has already successfully been applied. Augmented Reality AR has started to be applied as a new technology. In this paper, we introduce several AR works for being used in psychology. We also present a study of an AR system for the treatment of acrophobia using immersive photography in which participated expert computer science engineers. From the results and related to the sense of presence, all statistical tests applied showed significant differences between the two environments real and AR for all measures.
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Comparing the sense of presence experienced by the expert group and a non-expert group, it is possible to observe that there is not significant difference in the sense of presence between both groups. Before a large project is carried out, it is difficult to know the resulting view of the project accurately and realistically. Even though you invite specialists to look up blue prints or data, the results obtained cannot be perceived directly through this sense. Moreover, a large project affects environments greatly, it is necessary to develop a new powerful visualization-tool that assesses environmental impact accurately from the esthetics and ecology points of view before engineering is constructed.
Clearly, this is of great importance for avoidance of negative effects on environment. In recent years, the virtual reality VR has been rather popular for project planning. It provides us with a new means for visual assessment. As known, virtual reality needs to use three-dimensional 3D computer graphics to model and render virtual environments in real-time.
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