Geological Survey is celebrating the success of eight distinguished researchers who are recipients of the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers. Less than one percent of the United States is mapped by aeromagnetic data that fully meet modern standards and best practices, according to a recent evaluation by the U. Geological Survey. Less than five percent of the country has been mapped with data that can be considered adequate in meeting those same standards.
This report presents a ,scale geologic map, cross sections, and descriptive and interpretative text for the Poncha Pass area in central Colorado. The map The Alaska Geochemical Database Version 3. Like the Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2. Search Search.
Geology, Geophysics, and Geochemistry Science Center. Laboratories Our center has several laboratories, ranging from geophysics to geochemistry to spectroscopy to scanning electron microscopes. Center Laboratories. Science Branches Our strong science portfolio integrates regional and economic geology with a broad range of geophysical, geochemical, analytical expertise. Date published: July 29, Date published: June 12, Date published: June 10, View All News. Year Published: Geologic map of the Poncha Pass area, Chaffee, Fremont, and Saguache Counties, Colorado This report presents a ,scale geologic map, cross sections, and descriptive and interpretative text for the Poncha Pass area in central Colorado.
Minor, Scott A. Note: The Dewar vessel can be bought outright, but are normally rented. Note: When liquid argon is stored in a Dewar vessel, there is a natural bleed-off to the atmosphere when the gas reaches a certain pressure.
For this reason, a bank of argon cylinders is probably the best option for laboratories that do not use their instruments on a regular basis. So this should be taken into consideration if this technology is being used. One cylinder of either gas should be enough to last h at these kinds of flow rates. This can be achieved either by purchasing laboratory-grade gases and cleaning them up with a gas purification system getter , or by purchasing ultra-high-purity gases directly from the gas supplier.
If the latter option is chosen, you should be aware that ultra-high-purity helium The cost will vary depending on the location and demand, but it represents a good approximation for this exercise. A typical instrument requires less than 1kW of power. ETA: A graphite furnace system uses considerably more power than a flame AA system because a separate power unit is used to heat the graphite tube.
Based on the voltage, magnitude of the electric current, and the number of lines used, the majority of modern instruments draw about 5 kW total power. Because of the fundamental differences between the four AS techniques, it is important to understand that there are considerable differences in the cost of consumables. In addition, the cost of the same component used in different techniques can vary significantly between different vendors and suppliers.
So, the data has been taken from a number of different sources and averaged.
However, if a continuum source AA system is being used, there will not be a requirement to replace lamps on a regular basis. Other minor costs are nebuliser tubing and autosampler tubes.
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These are relatively inexpensive, but should be planned for. ETA: As long as the sample type is not too corrosive, a graphite furnace AA tube should last about heating cycles firings. Based on a normal heating program of 3 min per replicate, this represents 20 firings per hour. If the laboratory is running the instrument h per year, it will carry out a total of 20, firings and use 70 graphite tubes in the process.
The major consumable is the torch itself, which consists of two concentric quartz tubes and a sample injector either made of quartz or some ceramic material.
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In addition, a quartz bonnet normally protects the torch from the RF coil. Depending on sample workload and matrices being analysed, it is normal to go through a torch every months. In addition to the torch, other parts that need to be replaced or at least need to have spares include the nebuliser, spray chamber, and sample capillary and pump tubing. The first area is the interface region between the plasma and the mass spectrometer, which contains the sampler and skimmer cones.
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These are traditionally made of nickel, which is recommended for most matrices, or platinum for highly corrosive samples and organic matrices. Two sets of nickel cones and perhaps one set of platinum cones would be required per year. Table 1. We can take the data given in Table 1 a step further and use these numbers to calculate the operating costs per individual sample, assuming that a laboratory is determining 10 analytes per sample.
Let us now take a look at each technique to see how many samples can be analysed, assuming the instrument runs h per year. This is equivalent to analytes per hour or , analytes per year. For 10 analytes, this represents 18, samples per year. ETA: A single analyte by ETA takes about 5—6 min for a duplicate analysis, which is equivalent to approximately 10 analytes per hour or 10, analytes per year.
So for 10 analytes, this is equivalent to 20 samples per hour or 20, samples per year. Table 2. It must also be emphasised that this comparison does not take into account the detection limit requirements, but is based on instrument-operating costs alone. These figures have been generated for a typical workload using what would be considered the average cost of gases, power, and consumables in the United States. Even though there will be geographical differences in the cost of these items in other parts of the world, the comparative costs should be very similar.
However, it is a good exercise to show that there are running cost differences between the major AS techniques. If required, it can be taken a step further by also including the purchase price of the instrument, the cost of installing a clean room, the cost of sample preparation, and the salary of the operator.
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This would be a very useful exercise as it would give a good approximation of the overall cost of analysis, and therefore it could be used as a guideline for calculating what a laboratory might charge for running samples on a commercial basis. It is also important to remember that there are many criteria to consider when selecting a trace element technique. Operating costs are just one of them, and they should not prevent you from choosing an instrument if your analytical requirements change, such as the need for lower detection limits.
But, if more than one of these techniques fulfils your analytical demands, then knowledge of the operating costs should help you make the right decision. Robert Thomas is principal of Scientific Solutions, a consulting company that serves the application and writing needs of the trace element user community. He has worked in the field of atomic and mass spectroscopy for more than 40 years and has written over 80 technical publications including a part tutorial series and three textbooks on ICP-MS.
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