Dunham , Annette M. Community analysis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacteria in the maize mycorrhizosphere in a long-term fertilization trial Jonas F. Toljander , Juan C.
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Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. Latest Most Read Most Cited Distribution patterns of fungal taxa and inferred functional traits reflect the non-uniform vertical stratification of soil microhabitats in a coastal pine forest. Successional trophic complexity and biogeographical structure of eukaryotic communities in waterworks rapid sand filters. Comparison of the plant growth promotion performance of a consortium of Bacilli inoculated as endospores or as vegetative cells. Availability of carbon and nitrogen in soil affects Metarhizium robertsii root colonization and transfer of insect-derived nitrogen.
Characterization of the microbiome and bioluminescent symbionts across life stages of ceratioid anglerfishes of the gulf of mexico. The 10 11 CFU g -1 was signalled in the Lens sp. Ecological characterization of studied soil is shown in Table 1.
- Molecular Microbial Ecology of the Rhizosphere, Volume 2 (Electronic book text, Volume Two ed.).
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The highest density of fungi was observed in Triticum sp. The actinomycetes showed a maximum of 1, In the forest ecosystem, bacteria were abundant in all the rhizosphere of Pinus sp. The highest density of fungi 1, The actinomycetes were present with a maximum of 3,5. Among the soils prospected, microbial enumeration indicated a higher abundance of bacteria in the humid ecosystem than in agricultural and forest ecosystem, with the predominance of the Pseudomonas and Bacillus species.
They are the most diverse and ecologically significant group of bacteria on the rhizosphere Dommergues and Mangenot, Physicochemical results: Soil physico chemical properties are presented in Fig. Soils were fine textured Sand: The results of soil physico chemical properties varied depending on the ecosystem type.
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On the basis of our results it appeared that the presences of bacteria was important in the silty clay soils of the humid station. Soil texture affects the microbial activities Hassink, ; Sorensen and Jensen, Based on the results, it appears that microbial biomass is influenced by soil texture. These data are in agreement with previous results. Fine-textured soils typically contain greater quantities of organic matter and microbial biomass than coarse-textured soils.
Bonneau and Souchier , demonstrated that this fine texture promoted the bacterial growth i. Clay-sized particles are thought to protect organic matter through adsorption and aggregation, shelter soil microorganisms from predation Elliott et al. According to Alvarez et al. Fine-textured soils typically contain greater quantities of organic matter and microbial biomass than coarse-textured soils Schimel, Clay-sized particles are thought to protect organic matter through adsorption and aggregation and increase substrate-use efficiency Martin et al.
For fungi and actinomycetes this fine texture had not affects on their abundance. Insam et al. Although, several studies have demonstrated that soil texture has a significant influence on soil microbial biomass Van-Veen et al. The highest values were signaled in agroecosystem and the humid ecosystem soils. Soil organic matter OM was higher in the forest ecosystem soils but lowest in the agroecosystem soils. These values can be explained by the fact that any OM fraction incorporated was quickly assimilated by microorganisms present especially by the most pathogens i.
It may be pointed out that only amount to a smaller percentage of organic soil C, contributes substantially to plant available nutrient content Diaz-Ravina et al. According to diverse authors the ratio of microbial C and extractable C to total organic C are related to substrate quality.
The reduction of OM content observed in the soils could also be a cause of reduced soil enzyme activity i. It has been demonstrated by Namour , that the density of heterotrophic community is slightly correlated with the quantity of the substrate available. These results are in agreement with previous report of Namour , focused on the OM kinetic.
As described by Servais , the OM is divided into four classes of decreasing lability: a class directly comparable to effectively control microbial growth, two classes slowly hydrolysable and finally a class not used by microorganisms not assimilated. Our data indicate that this organic matter in these ecosystems was relatively recalcitrant. In summary, our results suggest that plant type influences microbial abundance and diversity. Present study suggests that plant production holds promise in predicting patterns of labile organic matter pools and microbial biomass at much larger spatial scales.
The diversity and abundance of soilborne microbes may be strongly influenced by some abiotic and biotic factors; however, few studies have described the diversity and dynamics of soilborne bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in the region of Mascara Northern-Algerian West.
Root Mucilage from Pea and Its Utilization by Rhizosphere Bacteria as a Sole Carbon Source
To obtain an accurate representation of the function and structure of soils, it is necessary to study the inter-relationship between physical, chemical, biochemical and biological properties. Measurement of only one or some of these properties will give only a partial evaluation of the state of the soil ecosystem.
The results showed that field data interpretation of soils properties is difficult, particularly when several factors exerting an influence on microbial communities are involved. Further studies are necessary in order to confirm these preliminary field data. Alvarez, G. Chaussod, D. Cluzeau, B. Godden and C. Lemarie et al. Atlas, R. Bartha, Microbial Ecology: Fundamentals and Applications.
Bardgett, R. Leemans, The short-term effects of cessation of fertiliser applications, liming and grazing on microbial biomass and activity in a reseeded upland grassland soil. Soils, Souchier, Pedology: Constituants and Soil Properties. Crecchio, C. Gelsomino, R. However, some intercropping systems show yield disadvantages due to strong interspecific competition [ 3 ].
It is very necessary to explore the underlying mechanisms of yield advantages under intercropping systems. Intercropping involves the aboveground and belowground interaction of crops. In previous studies, the aboveground interaction in intercropping systems altered the canopy micro-ecology, resulting in improved solar light use efficiency and soil water storage capacity, and a reduction in the evaporation of soil moisture [ 4 , 5 ].
In recent years, more studies have been focused on soil nutrients and root exudates [ 6 ]. Meanwhile, increased rhizosphere phosphorus availability was also observed in durum wheat and chickpea intercropping in neutral soil, but rhizosphere acidification was not observed; in fact, the pH value increased [ 8 ]. Moreover, in acidic soil, He et al. Therefore, belowground interspecific interactions are complex, and further research is needed.
Soil microorganisms play crucial roles in the rhizosphere ecosystem, being involved in soil nutrient cycling, suppression of soil-borne pathogenic microorganisms, and the decomposition of organic matter, which is closely associated with the aboveground performance of plants [ 10 , 11 ].
In recent years, the root-associated microbial community has been the focus of many plant studies. Mortel et al.
Sanguin et al. Weidner et al. Previous studies have demonstrated that plants can modify their rhizosphere microbial community through their root exudates [ 15 , 16 ], and that the shift of rhizosphere microbial can further affect the soil enzymes and soil fertility [ 17 ]. Therefore, the rhizosphere microbial community can be affected by different plants in intercropping, and the changes in soil microbial communities may play important roles in the benefits of intercropping.
Intercropping of maize and peanut has been previously demonstrated to provide significant advantages, and has been commonly used [ 18 , 19 ]. Molecular methods can assay the microbial community structure in phylum, genera, and even species in the rhizosphere soil of plants [ 20 ]. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism T-RFLP coupled with cloning sequences quantitative PCR qPCR technique offers the best possibilities for analyzing the structure and diversity of soil microbial communities [ 21 , 22 ].
Related Molecular Microbial Ecology of the Rhizosphere: Volume 1 & 2
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